Given that private cars are usually parked overnight, most EV owners rely on home charging to ensure that their EV is ready for use each morning. Home-base overnight charging also has the advantage of being, in most cases, the cheapest time to recharge.
Charging at home is often the most convenient and cost effective way to recharge an EV. Government grants are available for the installation of home EV charge points. See OLEV Grants
Most home chargers are either rated at 3 kW or 7 kW. The higher powered wall-mounted units normally cost more than the slower 3 kW option, and halve the time required to fully charge an EV.
In most cases, home-based charging requires off-street parking to avoid trailing cables across public footpaths and public areas. All EV charging units are wired directly to the central metering unit, usually on its own circuit for safety and to enable monitoring separate from other electrical loads. While less common, on-street residential charging units are becoming available in some local authority areas.
There are three main types of EV charging – rapid, fast, and slow. These represent the power outputs, and therefore charging speeds, available to charge an EV. Note that power is measured in kilowatts (kW).
Rapid chargers are one of two types – AC or DC [Alternating or Direct Current]. Current Rapid AC chargers are rated at 43 kW, while most Rapid DC units are at least 50 kW. Both will charge the majority of EVs to 80% in around 30-60 minutes (depending a battery capacity). Tesla Superchargers are also Rapid DC and charge at around 120 kW. Rapid AC devices use a tethered Type 2 connector, and Rapid DC chargers are fitted with a CCS, CHAdeMO or Tesla Type 2.
Fast chargers include those which provide power from 7 kW to 22 kW, which typically fully charge an EV in 3-4 hours. Common fast connectors are a tethered Type 1 or a Type 2 socket (via a connector cable supplied with the vehicle).
Slow units (up to 3 kW) are best used for overnight charging and usually take between 6 and 12 hours for a pure-EV, or 2-4 hours for a PHEV. EVs charge on slow devices using a cable which connects the vehicle to a 3-pin or Type 2 socket.